Fact #2 – Gibbons mostly move by swinging Apes are way larger than monkeys and unlike monkeys they do not have tails. Kloss’s gibbon (H. klossii), from the Mentawai Islands west of Sumatra, is completely black throughout its life. … , This article is about a family of apes. In ape. The English word 'gibbon' is said to be a reborrowing from French, and folk etymology (cf. Monkeys. The smallest apes are the gibbons. This is an indication that these major differences in humans and gibbons could have had a common source of plasticity or change. The great apes include gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos. ", Gibbons are among nature's best brachiators. Gibbons are small apes.. Gorillas are the largest apes. Gibbons make up the “lesser apes” group, the largest group of all the apes. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The common ancestor of hominoids is shown to have a minimum of 24 major chromosomal rearrangements from the presumed gibbon ancestor’s karyotype. They are highly arboreal and bipedal on the ground. The classification of the great apes has been revised several times in the last few decades; these revisions have led to a varied use of the word "hominid" over time. Unlike most of the great apes, gibbons frequently form long-term pair bonds. Adult males are black and females are brown, with colour changes similar to those seen in the concolor group. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/animal/gibbon-primate, gibbon - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), gibbon - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In modern usage, however, yuán is a generic word for ape. IUCN Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group, "Gibbon Conservation Center Working to Save South Asia's Hoolock Gibbons & Other "Small Apes, "Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes", "Coalescent-Based Analyses of Genomic Sequence Data Provide a Robust Resolution of Phylogenetic Relationships among Major Groups of Gibbons", "Gibbon systematics and species identification", "Gibbon Systematics and Species Identification", "Extinct gibbon found in tomb of ancient Chinese emperor's grandmother", "New species of gibbon discovered in China", "A stray molar is the oldest known fossil from an ancient gibbon - Ancestors of these small-bodied apes were in India roughly 13 million years ago, a study suggests", "New Middle Miocene ape (Primates: Hylobatidae) from Ramnagar, India fills major gaps in the hominoid fossil record", "The Syntax and Meaning of Wild Gibbon Songs", Recognizing gibbons from their regional accents, "A high-resolution map of synteny disruptions in gibbon and human genomes", "Functional anatomy of the gibbon forelimb: Adaptations to a brachiating lifestyle", https://www.reuters.com/article/us-science-gibbons-idUSKBN0H520320140910, "Comprehensive analyses of white-handed gibbon chromosomes enables access to 92 evolutionary conserved breakpoints compared to the human genome", http://www.kalaweit.org/sites-kalaweit-sumatra.php, "Letter of Endorsement - Year of the Gibbon", "Gibbon paintings in China, Japan, and Korea: Historical distribution, production rate and context", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gibbon&oldid=992884097, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The gibbons are also known as the small apes. Gibbons are not monkeys. They have lighter bodies and smaller social groups than great apes.  Gibbons, however, not only seemed to be free from problems but let the change help them effectively adapt to their environment. The difference in colour comes about with age; the juveniles are buff and both sexes darken with age, but the male does so much more rapidly. Great apes, for example, are able to recognize themselves in mirrors (monkeys and other nonhumans cannot, with the exception of bottlenose dolphins). Knowing that gibbon and orangutan ancestors existed in the same spot together in northern India 13 million years ago, and … “Today, gibbons and orangutans can both be found in Sumatra and Borneo in Southeast Asia, and the oldest fossil apes are from Africa. The black crested gibbon (N. concolor) is found from southern China into northernmost Vietnam and Laos; the northern concolor (N. leucogenys), also known as the Chinese white-cheeked gibbon, and southern concolor (N. siki) gibbons are found farther south; and the red-cheeked gibbon (N. gabriellae) lives in southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia. The family historically contained one genus, but now is split into four extant genera and 18 species. They are much smaller than great apes and they spend almost all their time in trees. Molecular data indicate that the four groups are as different from one another as chimpanzees are from humans. Lesser apes. Updates? They are part of the ape family and are classified as lesser apes because they are smaller than the great apes. , At the species level, estimates from mitochondrial DNA genome analyses suggest that Hylobates pileatus diverged from H. lar and H. agilis around 3.9 Mya, and H. lar and H. agilis separated around 3.3 Mya. On the ground, gibbons walk erect with the arms held aloft or behind. According to a study that mapped synteny (genes occurring on the same chromosome) disruptions in the gibbon and human genome, humans and great apes are part of the same superfamily (Hominoidea) with gibbons. There are 18 different species of gibbons, and each species is different from the next. Most gibbons are about 16 to 26 inches (40 to 65 centimeters) long. In the concolor group, which is classified in the genus Nomascus, both sexes are black as juveniles, but the females lighten to buff with maturity, so that the two sexes look quite different as adults. They can also make leaps up to 8 m (26 ft), and walk bipedally with their arms raised for balance. There are two main groups of apes, the Great Apes and the Lesser Apes. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Where can you find a capybara? They are sometimes hunted for food, but more often they are killed for their supposed medicinal properties; their long arm bones are especially prized. With a genome that has a 96% similarity to humans, the gibbon has a role as a bridge between Old World Monkeys like macaques and the great apes. Researchers view this unusually high rate of chromosomal rearrangement that is specific in small apes like gibbons could potentially be due to factors that increase the rate of chromosomal breakage or factors that allow derivative chromosomes to be fixated in a homozygous state while mostly lost in other mammals.. Apes are human’s closest living relatives. The siamang (S. syndactylus) inhabits the forests of Sumatra and Malaya. , Whole genome molecular dating analyses indicate that the gibbon lineage diverged from that of great apes around 16.8 million years ago (Mya) (95% confidence interval: 15.9 – 17.6 Mya; given a divergence of 29 Mya from Old World monkeys). Matsudaira K, Ishida T (2010) Phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of the whole mitochondrial genome sequences among three gibbon genera. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. People more often confuse apes with monkeys but they are totally two different species. Reuters. Gibbons differ from great apes in a number of physical ways. The family historically contained one genus, but now is split into four extant genera and 18 species. The current conservation status of gibbon species is alarming - all but one is listed as either Endangered or Critically Endangered.  These morphological ambiguities have led to hybrids in zoos. Hominidae - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Great apes", "Hominid", and "Hominids" redirect here. , Gibbon skulls and teeth resemble those of the great apes, and their noses are similar to those of all catarrhine primates. They are found only in the Indo-Malayan region, extending from India and China, down through mainland Southeast Asia and into Indonesia. No, gibbons are apes. The white-handed gibbon (H. lar), of northern Sumatra and most of the Malay Peninsula northward through Thailand into Yunnan, China, is similar but has white extremities. The smallest and have the size of the head and a throat sac, which inflates and serves as resonating! Only apes that live in forests, and each species is different from one tree branch to branch speed! Improve this article is about a family of apes life, although they are active during the day live... 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